Configurable Currency Strength Meter Flash Apptop
Strength Chart represents the rate of change price movement for the eight (8) Major Currencies measured against other Majors. Results show strength and weakness against a customizable basket of currencies. Many Traders applying momentum-based strategies prefer matching Currencies that are ‘Strengthening’ and ‘Weakening’ rather than ‘Strong’ and ‘Weak’.
Percentage Change of individual Forex pairs is calculated and then subsequently grouped with like kind. The rate of changes are then aggregated to produce a percentage change for each of the eight groups. These eight (8) rate of change aggregations are then plotted on the chart together which allows both quick comparisons and in-depth analysis to be made of the underlying Currencies.
This ‘Percentage Rate of Change’ method for analyzing strength of individual pairs is different than the standard Currency Strength formula precursor that is used within our New 5NITRO+ Metatrader 4 Meter. While this percentage change formula used in this Flash-based strength chart on this page might be considered inferior to the formula used within 5N+ that was originally created by Tom Yeomans out of Nova Scotia, it suffices for purposes here. View more info about the standard CSM formula and its precursor integration into 5NITRO+.
Strength Chart also can provide trend length perspective and Overbought / Oversold relativity. These trend lengths and OBOS overextended data on higher time frames serve as possible indications for Mean Reversion strategies or to hedge risks. In-depth observations of Mean Reversion on the Weekly time frame is provided further below in the last sub section.
Currency Index is also a quick way to view correlations. To view an example of ‘Positive Correlation’, isolate EUR+CHF from the Hourly thru Daily. Well, up until January 14, 2015 that is.
Chart useful in identifying which related FX pairs have been or are beginning to trend. Matching combinations of Currencies with very recent sharp angle slopes in opposite directions or in the midst of can sometimes produce early warnings for their FX pairs. While these drastic slopes or spikes in a Currency will often parallel spikes in many of the related FX pairs providing very little early warning, it may be that the possible advantage actually lies in the other related FX pairs. In other words, providing a ‘Leading Indicator’ effect.
For Example: while a spike down in JPY may have been mainly prompted by spikes up in EURJPY and GBPJPY and thus all began at the same exact moment, the real opportunity may lie in CADJPY, AUDJPY, NZDJPY. These pairs may soon follow suit. When sharp slopes appear, this tends to indicate continued strength or weakness. When a Currency is neutral or drifting sideways, often it will do so in patterns that resemble ‘Sine Waves’ or cycles or simply just moving up and down within a hi-lo channel. So, these wave patterns can sometimes present the perfect setups when seeking out FX pairs that may be lagging, such as in the CADJPY example above in which it acts as the ‘Follower’ while EURJPY+GBPJPY are the ‘Leaders’*
*This is only an example. It is not being stated either of those Yen pairs are always Leaders or always Followers. This continually changes and is highly dependent on time frames or the period of time in which pairs are measured, similar to the variability of ‘Correlations’. For more in-depth information and analysis dedicated to Leader / Follower, seek out the research of ‘Forex Automaton’.
… Can Neither be Created Nor Destroyed. It Can Only Transform.
The Strength Index Chart in turn gives us money flow into or out of one Major Currency in relation to the seven (7) others. There is an overwhelmingly high inverse correlation that takes place. The correlation is not 100% because of course the World and Forex Market is made up of more than just the eight (8) Major Regions and Currencies. But for the most part as measured by total yearly FX volume, proceeds received from selling a particular Major (8) Currency is immediately used to purchase any combination of other (7) Major Currencies.
Because of ‘Zero Sum’ Theoretical Logic, this type of analysis capability provided by the Currency Strength Meter is unique to the Forex Market. An example to the contrary, when money flows out of a particular Equity Stock this does not necessarily mean those same funds will immediately be placed back into the Equity Market.
Expand Currency Strength Chart to Maximum Size After Popping Light Boxes Above
Opera Browsers – It was noticed the other day some sort of issue when clicking the ‘ExXpand Box’ if already at its maximum state. The white icon Opera ‘Next’ is fine. The Red icon Opera ‘Stable’ and Blue icon Opera ‘Developer’ have issues. These new Operas use Blink or Web-Kit, a form of Chrome … which is also fine.
If you are viewing on a smaller monitor, the Photo Light Box will automatically overly under-size and crop the meter. Click the grey expand button in the upper right hand corner to maximize the currency chart to its intended size: [see pic below]
You can then better utilize the Browser Zoom to make the currency index whatever size you wish, such as maximized to fit a full 2560 x 1440 27″ monitor.
Maintaining Visual Scale Relativity of the Chart
As the number of currencies that are selected increases, the MAX + MIN visual scale relativity as a whole expands by the furthest outlier. Unless your trading or analysis specifically only calls for the same one or two Currencies to be measured, the max number of currencies selected is recommended to provide full and consistent relativity. Over time, this will prove beneficial by eliminating what can appear to be extreme moves of which may cause unjustified resulting action. This assumes that the most popular method to analyze these strengths is by constant visual comparison of the lines in relation to each other and in relation to the top and bottom boundaries of the chart box. Rather than constantly comparing the numerical percentages.
Minimal Currencies are set here by default to help minimize initial page load speed. However, the opted formula here always uses all (28) Pairs worth of Data available regardless of how many Currencies are selected by you. This helps to retain familiar relativity when making visual comparisons and provides a consistent visual scale. Always selecting ALL Currencies will retain more consistent relativity because the MAX + MIN remains more static. In other words, the vertical scale is variable. The vertical scale of the chart is always set by the strongest Currency for the chosen period of time and the weakest Currency.
Supposed Repainting of Forex Currency Strength History
There is a fairly large group of Currency Strength Meter Indicator users who use it every day, and have for about 1-3 years. We began including it here sometime in 2011. After about six months we began to receive emails claiming that the Weekly time frame is repainting. That the values and line levels had changed since the initial viewing 5-6 months prior. The same goes for lower time frame users that have sent emails noticing the history of the M15 time frame, for example, has changed.
Notice how the strength of all the Currencies always begins at 0.00%?
All Currencies showing 0.00% strengths at the very beginning of the charts to the very left is indicative of strengths being computed across a static look back period. Regardless of which size chart is chosen to view, the total look back period remains the same.
So for example when H1 is chosen, strength is always measured across a rolling thirty (30) trading day period or about (720) rolling hours. When D1 is chosen for example, strength is always measured and displayed across a rolling (365) trading day period.
Chart history is changing after periods of time because the starting point at which strength is measured from has changed. Why? Because the total look back period has remained static.
Trouble Identifying Time Frame Selected?
Users are having troubles identifying which time frame is selected. This remains true even directly after pressing one of the time frame buttons.
Notice how the button becomes smaller once pressed?
The time frame selected is a tad shorter vertically. Once a time frame is selected, it will become a tad shorter vertically as illustrated in the pictures below and as seen on the actual strength chart. The top picture has the 15 Minutes button pressed. The lower picture has the Daily time frame button pressed.
15 Minute Time Frame Selected
Daily Time Frame Selectedtop
GBP Weekly Mean Reversion Observations – General Thoughts and Ideas
Zero Sum + Balance Points
FX, above all other markets, is reliably susceptible to Daily, Weekly, and Monthly Mean Reversion of both buy side and sell side due to Zero Sum theoretical logic with Week and Monthly presenting lowest risk.
Well actually, while Week and Monthly offer the lowest risk as it is defined here because we are specifically discussing the above strength chart that includes a fixed-width property, this is not necessarily true of time frames in general. It is not the action of increasing time frames that reduces risk linearly. Risk is reduced when we are taking action in and around EXTREME support or resistance areas. Accordingly then, the support and resistance levels with the longest lookbacks offer the lowest risk. So, if the chart or your view of the chart has a fixed width, like in the above index chart, you are more likely to see the highest resistance and lowest support if the time frame is higher and the zoom is the least. Hence, higher time frames present us with the lowest risk opportunities.
Since I do not personally intend on holding positions for 7 years to 20 years, let us consider the Weekly time frame as the highest rather than the Monthly. Weekly is also the highest option for the Strength Meter on this page. Also with many Brokers providing MT4, their Monthly data tends to be severely lacking. We are lucky if we can get 150 bars, even in USDJPY. Amount of Weekly history available usually gets us back to at least 1995. But, while your Weekly charts beginning some time in the 1990s should be sufficient in establishing Highs and Lows, I still have a library of Max charts from other online sources like from Google Finance and CME. This is definitely suggested before ever building Mean Reversion positions at what appears to be absolute highs or lows.
While this strength chart is a good introduction tool into Mean Reversion methods and a nice, quick reference to get a general idea of possible opportunities in the underlying currency as a whole, it is obviously recommended to study actual individual pair charts before making any decisions. Somewhat because of what was just noted. But primarily, because once we start analysing extreme support and resistance levels like this that may be 3 year, 5 year, 7 year, 10 year, or even 15 year highs and lows – they actually tend to hold up fairly well regardless of the actual pair. Meaning, exotic pairs such as GBPZAR tend to comply with multi-year support and resistance levels as well (or good) as GBPUSD, GBPJPY, EURUSD, EURJPY, AUDUSD, USDJPY, as an example. But on lesser-lookback highs and lows such as one month or even one year, I am often cautious and leary about relying on and creating huge blocks of Limit orders at these support and resistance levels to build a position from. Now, adding to an in-the-money, multi year position on a retracement to these levels? Sure. Taking some profit at these levels? Of course.
Inflation is a Sell Side Problem
I never apply Mean Reversion techniques to Commodity, Equity, or Equity-based CFD SELL SIDE due to Inflation Factoring.
Inflation destroys the Zero Sum equation and directly disproves the theory of “… can neither be created nor destroyed”. The Inflation variable is like an impurity that can never be filtered out or neutralised. This is actually a good property though when it comes to BUY SIDE Mean Reversion techniques of Equities and Commodities. It is like having the wind at your back. Though at only about 3 kilometers per hour, it is more like a light breeze. Better than a vacuum though … pulling you in the wrong direction.
Inflation, and other non-Zero Sum variables, render multi-year resistance levels unreliable. And when creating huge blocks of limit sell orders in and around and up to these levels with huge blocks of stop losses then just above, reliability is a necessity. Likewise then, support levels need to be adjusted up when buying. Longer lookback levels need to be adjusted the most, recent not as much. This causes much less potential for position establishment issues however. Because I never actually move support levels up, it tends to mean that I will just not end up with as many units as preferred, rather than having an entire position stopped out immediately which would happen often if selling.
Keep in mind, positions with the possibility of lasting up to 3 – 5 years are being referred to here, not swing trades. The intended hold times of positions does not matter however. It is about the reliability of support and resistance levels that have not been inflation adjusted that are the limiting issue. Even if 0.25 to 3 month Swing Trading was being pondered, the resistance level being used to establish a short position – may be a 20 year high, for example.
Also keep in mind, Weekly Mean Reversion is not being recommended as a primary method. On average since 2008 when I began to Mean-Revert, total net profit (or net loss) has only comprised about 17% of overall yearly gains (or losses). It pushed 40% in earlier years as many Equity based CFDs reverted from ridiculous lows, such as DOW 30 components American Express, Bank of America, JP Morgan Chase, General Electric, Procter & Gamble, Caterpillar, Microsoft, Cisco, Intel.
The actual number of opportunities within a ten year period can be slim. Although, this past decade presented above average number of opportunities in comparison to past decades and presumably future decades. Primarily because this past decade included that 2008-2009 Financial Crisis and its extended distancing from the Mean in nearly all markets.
As outlined in other parts of this site, a separate Broker (or separate account) is used only for Mean Reversion. If an additional Broker is not the solution, a spouse or corporation can be used to create an additional account within the same Broker and a separate MT4 instance on separate machine. This will help tremendously in keeping methods and your daily trading activities separate. Expanding the pool of instruments traded will greatly increase opportunities while reducing risk. All 225+ symbols offered by this particular Broker in its Market Watch window are all being sifted through for possible upcoming opportunities. All of them.
But what about high spreads in some of those exotics and EuroZone CFDs? Well, with potential actual and equivalent gains in the 500 to 8 000 pip range, spread costs are seldom dictating any decisions. Neither are carry costs.
Many instruments and thus lower capital used per will lower risk by allowing for much more patience. More patience to endure the often grueling wait until extreme levels are tested. Patience to then meticulously build positions at these extreme levels as consolidation forms bases. Or in addition, the confidence and increased risk threshold to have large pre-built blocks of Buy Limits and Sell Limits patiently waiting there for when a quick spike down to or up to, and maybe not all the way to … is the only opportunity actually provided every 5 years or so.
Spreading this method across as many instruments and different markets as possible allows the core theory + probabilities to eventually play out in our favor. It gives the theory room to breathe and room to eventually reward our patience and longer-term capital investment.
Periodic Strength Chart Analysis – Looking For Opportunities
2013-04-03T01:30:12 - Can GBP finally break up out of consolidation?
JPY finally reverted sharply for us late 2012 and into 2013. Could it now finally be time for GBP to attempt a revert back Home after this multi-year grueling period of consolidation down at the Weekly bottom? A push down to -35% prior to GBP reverting remains a risk, albeit low. Although there is sizable resistance around June 2009. Enable all on the Weekly for proper perspective and view Larger Chart
2013-12-23T01:20:10 Update - Yes. GBP looks good, thus far.
GBP finally broke up out of the consolidation it had been in since 2010** Historic Mean Reversion probabilities tell us GBP is more likely to continue towards the 0.00% Mean now – rather than retracing back 100% to its consolidation, or anchor, area of -27% or breaking lower and testing the previously feared -35% area. The risk appears low of this retracement occurring from a historical Mean Reversion technical basis and fundamentally low risk due to an overwhelming majority of top world economists agreeing that the BOE is leaning towards rate increases by the end of 2014 or into 2015. All the while, most other countries except the United States are said to be showing very little growth. With the EuroZone in particular hinting of negative growth and a fear of deflation. Enable all on the Weekly for proper perspective and view Larger Chart
Fixed-Width Maybe Not So Ideal
**At least it appeared to break up out of consolidation at that time in December 2013. One of the caveats of using a fixed-width tool like this is that the past can change sometimes drastically. Now almost one year later, there is a different set of of parameters that recent rate of change is being compared to. It now appears almost one year later that GBP remains trapped in the same consolidation it has been in since 2010. This ‘repainting’ of the past is discussed in that sub section above.
I think rather that is just the perfect example of why, while this fixed-width Strength Chart is a good introduction and somewhat serves its purpose here of being able to show live real time Weekly levels and to gain a general perspective, using a non fixed-width chart is obviously more ideal to make actual weekly mean-reversion decisions.
I believe one of Tom Yeoman’s CSM software versions, either Accustrength or FX4Caster, does have the ability to show a wide view of history amounting to what would be a Weekly or Monthly view? Maybe not, but I would think this is possible through the settings. I am currently using our old FlowMeter CSM MT4 on a daily basis for Daily Chart Position Trading. Like noted above, the Pair Charts themselves are used as main reference and last step decision making. Because I have been cycling through every pair known to man on a daily basis since about 2004, I already had a general idea that GBP had been consolidating at lows without the need for a CSM to tell me this.
This old spaghetti-type CSM named FlowMeter that I and many customers dating back around 2008-2009 are using is being recoded and improved for the new MT4 600+ and released as FLOW+ partially integrated into 6NITRO+ in 2015 or 2016 (well at least before 2020). While these types of meters using the standard CSM formula along with Accustrength and FX4Caster can provide some insight for higher mean-reversion, they are best suited as their intended purpose of measuring Slope + Inertia, IMO.
Because this standard CSM formula peaks out at (9) and bottoms out at (0), I feel there is a false sense of security generated. This leads almost to an inevitable forced Martingale strategy to be deployed more often than not as strength readings hover horizontally along the tops and bottoms for extended periods of time. Price continues to move against us and continues and continues and continues ….
This Martingale nightmare is why only ‘Weekly’ mean-reversion is recommended in the first place using extreme highs and lows. This nightmare is why we also need the definitive guidance of actual price support and resistance levels, rather than the ‘virtual’ guidance and ‘virtual’ limits of nine and zero from an obscure tool that the majority of worldwide professional Traders are not looking at.
Though, everyone is staring at extreme support and resistance levels – and have plans in place to take action once approached. Obscure CSMs do not lead to this same self-fulfilling type of response from the markets.
In other words, analysts do not come on CNBC or Bloomberg advising viewers to be on the lookout for “JPY hitting (0) on the Accustrength Currency Strength Meter!”.
More details about FlowMeter and FLOW+ further below.
2014-10-03T11:10:20 Update - Goldman Foresees BOE Increasing at Slower Pace than The U.S. Fed.
But, BOE is still expected to initialize first.
This is noteworthy as it relates to the GBP momentum being able to continue towards the Mean. The largest immediate impact of this report will be felt directly by the GBPUSD pair itself. We have already seen hard retracement prior to this report, primarily due to USD strength.
Well, I guess mentioning this retracement is redundant anyhow since we know Goldman established their and their clients’ Short positions well before this ‘for public consumption’ analysis was given freely to the public.
The probability of or the speed at which the other six (6) countries increase or further decrease rates will obviously have a greater combined impact on GBP as a whole than only what this Goldman report projects.
It is not necessarily specifically about Goldman Sachs or the other Money Changers. It is not about the uniqueness of how Goldman or other large Money Changers go about getting the herd to follow suit. It’s about trying to recognize and parallel REAL MONEY positions. And like noted in The 5NITRO+ Trading Pages, it’s about trying to recognize and decipher what Goldman’s algorithms and fundamental research are indicating to them.
We will never, as Retail Traders, have the IT resources or access to all necessary data for algorithmic trading. Especially not with only the data supplied through our Metatrader platforms. We will never afford our own economists and international research team.
So, we are left only with a few options. One of these options is just to cheat off of the Smart Student’s test paper in class. But first, we need to be actually taking the same test. Increasing our risk threshold per pair will allow us to trade more in sync with these larger ‘Smart’ firms. Longer term outlooks will help. And once we start to trade in sync, knowing that we have these large entities fighting for our positions right alongside us allows for patience and brings clarity. It allows us to begin making more decisions in a relaxed environment based purely on Logic + Probabilities.
2014-10-13T08:19:29 Update - What About GBPCHF? Isn’t this a Low Risk Buy?
A question was asked about going Long GBPCHF on a retracement. The Weekly Strength Chart seems to be saying this is the lowest risk Mean-Reversion trade at this particular moment? Possibly also the lowest risk trade looking forward until the end of this trading year? (until May 2015 presumably)
Again, the largest factor might be fundamental. When will BOE begin. And when they do begin, what will their forward guidance indicate about the pace. Also, what will the EuroZone look like, since EUR and CHF are highly correlated and currently pegged.
#1 Do you think CHF is likely to break its high correlation with EUR in 2014 2015 as it did from April 2011 through July 2011 which would mean SNB stops buying euros?
#2 If not then, do you think EURGBP will finally break the October 2008 support of 0.7700?
- I personally am not certain about #1.
- I think #1 is on the low side of probability.
- I will continue to be uncertain about #2 until we are there, in and around and down to 0.7700. I have big blocks of Buy Limits above and down to. Big blocks of Stop Losses and Sell Stops on break below. On a break below, I will then create Sell Limits probably as far up as .7800+ for an inevitable retracement up to rid itself of weak-handed Shorts before probably continuing lower. If it does break .7700, it might look similar to the current (October 2014) GOLD chart if and when GOLD breaks 1180.00
So in other words, if you think EURGBP convincingly breaking 0.7700 support is likely and that EURCHF will continue to (essentially) flatline while it is pegged at 1.20 – then yes, GBPCHF is probably a low risk Long on retrace here.
If you do not think this, then no … GBPCF is probably not a low risk Long on retrace here.
2015-01-14T09:11:21 Update - Looks like GBPCHF was not a low risk Long on retrace there.
I guess #1 from above was actually on the high side of probability, rather than low side.
As we all know by now, the Swiss National Bank decided on January 14 2015 to stop printing franc to buy euros. They foresaw an inability to keep pegging EURCHF @ 1.20 with continued ECB QE forecasted. They gave up and threw in the towel – even though they stated two days prior that the 1.20 pegging would continue.top
Future MT4 Currency Strength Meters
FLOW+™ A new currency strength meter for the new Metatrader Builds 600+ named FLOW+ has to be recoded from the beginning. Coding the 3NITRO+, 4NITRO+, and then 5NITRO+ upgrades for customers was the priority once this new MT4 600+ had began to roll out in February 2014. I have been using one of our older graph-output CSMs on its own dedicated spare 18.5″ monitor utilizing the MT4 compatibility engine (I assume), so F+ is still not really a priority. Other than Weekly Mean Reversion opportunities which can easily be gathered from the CSM on this page, I personally utilize CSMs as more of a 28 chart aggregation tool. I need to get a general idea of the entire FX market in one spot with just a glance, so the older FlowMeter suffices. I know what is in the code, so I know the output is perfect. Perfect enough. But a new CSM will get done eventually. Just not right now.
Multiple display configurations and output types is the goal. Ease of use and RAM CPU friendly is a must. Constant position changing Dynamic Rankings to instantly identify strongest vs. weakest is a necessity.
These Dynamic Rankings are trying to be modeled after LeverageFX’s Currency Strength Rankings in Block form …. the App with Green and Red blocks in which the colors are variably weighted dependent on rank. Sort of like a Heat Map.
For anyone who has used this Top Gun software on eSignal in particular that specific CSM template, then you know how useful these instant rankings can be. This information can be especially useful for short term, intraday Traders constantly seeking to match strongest versus weakest as soon the opportunity presents itself, namely following fundamental events such as NFP.
Metatrader 4 coding logic, such as “A single indicator can only occupy one chart location, either the main chart, or a bottom indicator window” in addition to only one output type – increases the coding limitations. However, once the base meter is split into a series of indicators – the possibilities for display combinations is increased.
Will probably be a simple multiple time frame meter marketed initially as an add-on to the bottom or top of New 6NITRO+ or 7NITRO+ Meters … sort of like pictured to the left and to the right of the working alpha with the older NITRO+ Original
Bookmark this page and check back in 2015 / 2016
Sizable Machine Resources Required
These tools are not like Stochastics or the ol’ MACD loaded on one single TF. These tools are complex and resource intensive.
It was roughly calculated that 5NITRO+ alone, utilizing one of its 28 pair multiple meter templates, might be performing up to 15,000+ calculations per second during such times as NFP on a multi-decimal Broker. This is assuming about 2 ticks per second on average over that entire 15 minutes following release. As we all know, the initial 1-3 minutes can produce as many as 3-5 ticks per second on pipette Brokers.
These are only the parameter calculations done by the 5N+ meter itself across the 28 pairs over the up to 7 total time frames*. This does not include the additional, whatever automatic internal calculations that are performed per each new tick by the 24 internally-aggregated Indicators themselves such as ADX, Alligator, Accelerator, Awesome Oscillator, etc, etc. These calculations are done automatically within your Metatrader Platform, but only when they are instructed to do so. Such as is what happens when 5N+ is loaded.
*Maximum time frames calculated by 5N+ is 7.0. Mean time frames calculated by 5N+ is about 4.7. Median time frames calculated is 5.0. Minimum time frames calculated is 3.0. The Minimum of 3.0 is when loaded on the Monthly periodocity. Number of time frames used for calculation is dependent on time frame in which the meter is loaded or time frames that the User has selected from the drop down list from within the settings. The influence that each other additional time frame has on the ultimate GLOBAL% is non-linearly variably-weighted. 5NITRO+ automatically adjusts MTF influence / weightings. There is now the option to either ‘quicken’ the response of the entire meter or to ‘smooth’ the response. This new feature is called ‘Time Outlook’. Strength Lookbacks can also now be adjusted which will also have an affect on the response.
Full breakdown + explanation of 5NITRO+ calculations and aggregations, including weightings of all used time frames – can be found here
Yes, there will be some calculation-per-tick redundancies when adding a CSM, making it similar to that 28 pair template used in the example above. But, we have to plan for Users wanting to run both at the same time, and possibly on a different set of pairs. A User may want to use the CSM to calculate Forex pairs, while using a multiple meter 5NITRO+ configuration on Exotics, CFDs, GOLD, SILVER, OIL, and Equity Indexes or Futures. In doing so, a multiple 5N+ setup could include 50-60 meters, depending on how many Exotics and different CFDs are offered by the particular Broker. This then would push calculation-per-second into the about 25,000-30,000 range.
So then, “Per-Tick Performance” has become an obstacle. Features and number of calculations per tick will need to be eliminated or reduced to
allow for DLL calls (the new MT4+ Builds 600+ may have killed DLL calls to who Metaquotes considers “untrusted 3rd party sources”. which of course means everyone except metaquotes.net is untrusted). Not really sure what this means yet.
Commercial Tools cannot be created only for those with 24GB RAM and Xeons. We are forced to create them for 32bit 2005-2006 1280×720 15.6″ Laptops runnin’ Windows XP with a max of 3.63GB usable RAM. Because if you are trading Retail Forex in 2014 and do not reside in the United States, these are your most likely machine specs.